Effects of Some Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) Concentration on Qualitative Traits of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)


  • Amir RAHİMİ Urmia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Production and Genetics
  • Gülen ÖZYAZICI Siirt Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü
  • Fatemeh AHMADİ Urmia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science




Heavy metal, soil pollution, dill, basil, essential oil


Soil pollution is a global concern from past to recent. Toxic and high resistance nature of chemical pollutants, such as heavy metals show their important as environmental risk and a serious problem for human health, because they can introduce to the food chain from contaminated environments. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn on qualitative parameters of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in polluted soil environment. Heavy metals concentration, total phenol and flavonoid, essential oil percentage, DPPH radical scavenging activity, super and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity in leave and stem parts of the plants were analysed in this study according to standard methods. According to results, Cu was the dominant heavy metal in leave and stem of both studied plants, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cd. The concentration of various heavy metals in dill was more than two times higher than basil. Total phenol and flavonoids showed significant differences in leave and stem in both plants. DPPH, super oxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity showed significant higher values in leave than stem in both plants.


Asgari Lajayer, B., Najafi, N.A., Moghiseh, E., Mosaferi, M., Hadian, J. 2019. Effects of gamma irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge on essential oil content and constituents of Ocimum basilicum L. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 3(71): 99-117.

Baghaie, A.H., Fereydoni, M. 2019. The potential risk of heavy metals on human health due to the daily consumption of vegetables. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal.

Barouchas, P. E., Akoumianaki-Ioannidou, A., Liopa-Tsakalidi, A., Moustakas, N. K. 2019. Effects of Vanadium and Nickel on Morphological Characteristics and on Vanadium and Nickel Uptake by Shoots of Mojito (Mentha× villosa) and Lavender (Lavandula anqustifolia). (1995). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(2): 487-492.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 28: 25–30.

Carrubba, A. 2015. Sustainable fertilization in medicinal and aromatic plants. In Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World (pp. 187-203). Springer, Dordrecht.

Caunii, A., Negrea, A., Pentea, M., Samfira, I., Motoc, M., Butnariu, M. 2015. Mobility of heavy metals from soil in the two species of the aromatic plants. Revista de Chimie, 66(3): 382-386.

Esmielpour, B., Soltani Toolarood, A. A., Fathololomi, S. 2016. Effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on growth and physiology of dill (Anethum graveolens L) under Pb stress condition (Doctoral dissertation, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili).

Espanany, A., Fallah, S. 2016. Seed germination of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) in response to salicylic acid and halopriming under cadmium stress. Plant Physiology, 6(3): 1701-1713.

Fattahi, B., Arzani, K., Souri, M. K., Barzegar, M. 2019. Effects of cadmium and lead on seed germination, morphological traits, and essential oil composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 138: 111584.

Garrat DC. 1964. The quantitative analysis of drugs. Chapman and Hall Ltd., Japan, 3: 456‐458

Lajayer, B.A., Najafi, N., Moghiseh, E., Mosaferi, M., Hadian, J. 2019. Micronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in basil plant cultivated on irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge-treated soil and evaluation of human health risk. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 104: 141-150.

Mahdi, N.M. 2016. Antibacterial Effect of dill seed oil anethum graveolens anethum graveolens kufa. Journal for Nursing sciences, 6(2): 194-200.

Meena, K. K., Shinde, A. L., Sorty, A. M., Bitla, U. M., Meena, H., Singh, N. P. 2019. Application of microbial products for enhancing the nutritional quality of agricultural produce. in microbial interventions in agriculture and environment. Springer, Singapore 4(2): 333-345.

Manzoor, J., Sharma, M., Wani, K. A. 2018. Heavy metals in vegetables and their impact on the nutrient quality of vegetables: A review. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 41(13): 1744-1763.

Majdoub, N., el-Guendouz, S., Rezgui, M., Carlier, J., Costa, C., Kaab, L. B. B., Miguel, M. G. 2017. Growth, photosynthetic pigments, phenolic content and biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Anethum graveolens L. and Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae) in response to zinc. Industrial crops and products, 109: 627-636.

Miranzadeh Mahabadi, H., Ramroudi, M., Asgharipour, M.R., Rahmani, H.R., Afyuni, M. 2019. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and the risk of target hazard quotient in some vegetables in Isfahan. Pollution, 6(1): 69-78.

Okpashi, V.E., Uroko, R.I., Uchenna, N.O., Paulinus, N.C., Ogbonnaya, P. 2019. Heavy metals concentration in greens sold in Umuahia-market Nigeria: Assessment of Risk to Human Health. EQA-International Journal of Environmental Quality, 34: 66-77.

Padash, A., Ghanbari, A., Asgharipour, M. R., Ali, M. 2019. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and physiological traits by exogenous salicylic acid in basil (Ocimum basilicum) under Pb stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 7(28): 18.

Pisoschi, A. M., Pop, A., Cimpeanu, C., Predoi, G. 2016. Antioxidant capacity determination in plants and plant-derived products: A review. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity.

Roba, C., Roşu, C., Piştea, I., Ozunu, A., Baciu, C. 2016. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(7): 6062-6073.

Rowell DL, Soil Science: methods and applications, Longman Group, Harlow, May 1994.

Seyedalikhani, S., Esperschuetz, J., Dickinson, N. M., Hofmann, R., Breitmeyer, J., Horswell, J., Robinson, B.H. 2019. Biowastes to augment the essential oil production of Leptospermum scoparium and Kunzea robusta in low-fertility soil. Plant physiology and biochemistry, 137: 213-221.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 299: 152–178.

Samavatipour, P., Abdossi, V., Salehi, R., Samavat, S., Moghadam, A.L. 2019. Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology Vol, 7(06): 69-74.

Szpyrka, E., Słowik-Borowiec, M. 2019. Consumer health risk to pesticide residues in Salvia officinalis L. and its infusions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 54(1): 14-19.

Salama, Z.A., El Baz, F.K., El Fouly, M.M. 2015. Changes in contents of some heavy metals in common vegetables from local markets over 13 years. International journal of vegetable science, 21(5): 482-490.

Tvrda, E., Brenkus, T., Duracka, M., Kirchner, R., Arvay, J. 2019. Anethum graveolens as a possible modulator of testicular steroidogenesis. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 346, No. 1, p. 012049). IOP Publishing.

Valenzuela-Cota, D.F., Buitimea-Cantúa, G.V., Plascencia-Jatomea, M., Cinco-Moroyoqui, F.J., Martínez-Higuera, A.A., Rosas-Burgos, E.C. 2019. Inhibition of the antioxidant activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase from Fusarium verticillioides exposed to a Jacquinia macrocarpa antifungal fraction. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 1-8.

Wasli, H., Jelali, N., Ellouzi, H., Msaada, K., Silva, A.M.S., Cardoso, S. M., Ksouri, R. 2018. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) in response to bicarbonate-induced oxidative damage. Agrochimica, 62(4): 319-335.

Zohrehvand, F., Takdastan, A. 2017. Concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables of farming lands irrigated with water from Karun river in Ahvaz. Agrochimica, 8(4): 385-393.

Zahedifar, M., Moosavi, A.A., Zarei, Z., Shafigh, M., Karimian, F. 2019. Heavy metals content and distribution in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as influenced by cadmium and different potassium sources. International journal of phytoremediation, 21(5): 435-447.



How to Cite

Amir RAHİMİ, Gülen ÖZYAZICI, & Fatemeh AHMADİ. (2020). Effects of Some Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) Concentration on Qualitative Traits of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(1), 54-67. https://doi.org/10.46291/ISPECJASvol4iss1pp54-67