Determination of cytogenetic and epigenetic effects of manganese and copper on Zea mays L.
Keywords:Heavy metal, Genomik instability, ABA, CRED-RA, RAPD.
Heavy metal accumulation and its possible effects are prominent problem for not only human health but also for the environment and plant systems due to that heavy metals are non-biodegradable. In this research, it was aimed to examine the impacts of heavy metals on toxicity and genotoxicity in maize. Seeds of corn were subjected to various concentrations of MnSO4 and CuSO4 for determining their effects on DNA methylation, DNA damage levels, protein and phytohormone alterations. The results revealed that an increase in copper and manganese concentrations causes decrease in soluble protein levels, genomic template stability (GTS) and mitotic index but causes an increase in RAPD profile alterations and DNA hypermethylation. Additionally, HPLC analyses show that CuSO4 and MnSO4 contamination reduces growth-promoting hormones, like gibberellic acid (GA), zeatin (ZA) and indole acetic acid (IAA), and increases the abscisic acid (ABA). This study obviously indicated that CuSO4 and MnSO4 have epigenetic and genotoxic effects. A decrease in the phytohormone level (ZA, GA, and IAA) and an increase in the ABA level under CuSO4 and MnSO4 are thought to be a part of the defense system of maize to struggle with stress.
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