ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p><strong><em>ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em></strong> is a four issues per year (March, June, September, and December) and was first published in the spring of 2017. The journal was established in order to have an original, unpublished, and not taken elsewhere for publication in the realm of business science in all fields of agriculture and agricultural sciences from Turkey and all over the world. It is maintained as the length of the history of the first history.</p> <p><strong><em>The journal</em></strong> is an International and peer-reviewed journal published by Institute of Economic Develoment and Social Researches. The journal publishes original research articles generated from studies conducted in all agricultural areas especially in Horticulture, Field Crops, Plant Protection, Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Machinery, Agrology and Plant Nutrition, Agricultural Biotechnology The Food Engineer and Animal Science.</p> <p><strong><em>ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em></strong> accepts research articles on-line with the Open Journal System (OJS) and offers it to the stakeholders with unlimited accessibility of the articles in all issues. As it is known, Open Journal Systems increase the impact level of articles by providing more qualified viewing opportunities to all readers on a national and international scale compared to subscription and distribution systems. OJS systems are also easily available to researchers in terms of indexing, re-access, free access, duplication.</p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong>Every article published in the journal since 2020 has given a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number.Since it is obligatory to provide ORCID numbers on articles accepted for publication, the "<a href="">Title Page</a>" must be filled completely in this sense in the article submission (upload) process.</p> en-US (Dr. Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU) (Dr. Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU) Wed, 06 Dec 2023 14:00:26 +0300 OJS 60 Determination of the Effect of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Intercropping System on the Agronomic Characteristics of Sweet Corn <p>In our country, the Black Sea region is a region where corn and beans are widely grown and consumed. In line with this information, this study was carried out in order to determine the effect of sweer corn and bean mixed planting system on some agronomic properties of sweet corn in Bafra district of Samsun province in 2021. The experiment was arrenged in a randomized block design with three replications. Covering corn; 1 row of corn, 1 row of beans; 1 row of corn, 2 rows of beans were tried as a mixed planting system. In the study, agronomic characteristics such as ear length, ear diameter, number of kernels per ear, ranged grain number, plant height, first ear height, number of ear and weight of the ear were investigated. According to the data obtained, plant height 224-239 cm, first ear height 70-78 cm, number of ear 1.2-1.3, ear weight 271-381 g, ear length 19-20 cm, ear diameter 39-42 cm, number of kernels per ear 15-16 pieces, ranged grain number was determined as 39-42 pieces. The Tukey comparison test was performed on the data obtained from the important features. As a result of the study, the effect of mixed planting practices on ear weight, ear length and row number were found to be insignificant, while the effect on other characteristics was determined to be significant. As a result of the data obtained, it was determined that the best results were obtained from the mixed planting arrangement of 1 row of corn and 2 row of beans.</p> <p> </p> Fatih ÖNER, Ferda ÖZKORKMAZ Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of Some Oat Cultivars for Grain Yield, Yield Components and Quality Traits in Düzce Ecological Conditions <p>This study was conducted to determine the grain yield, yield components and quality characteristics of 15 oat cultivars in Düzce province in the 2021-2022 growing season. The experiment was established in a randomized complete block design with three replications In this study, oat cultivars were examined panicle length, grain number per panicle, grain weight per panicle, thousand kernel weight, test weight, groat percentage and grain yield. According to the results, the average panicle length ranged from 13.23 to 20.83 cm, grain number per panicle ranged from 37.83 to 86.83, grain weight per panicle ranged from 0.96 to 2.75 g, thousand kernel weight ranged from 19.86 to 42.36 g, test weight ranged from 43.45 to 60.08 kg hl<sup>-1</sup>, groat percentage ranged from 74.2% to 100.0%, and grain yield varied between 201.4 and 414.8 kg da<sup>-1</sup>. According to the biplot graph, the analysis indicated that grain yield had a positive relationship with panicle length, grain number per panicle, and grain weight per panicle, while having a negative relationship with test weight and groat percentage. Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between grain yield and the number of grains per panicle, grain number per panicle, grain weight per panicle, thousand kernel weight, and test weight, while it had a negative relationship with groat percentage and panicle length.</p> Hüseyin GÜNGÖR, Mehmet Fatih ÇAKIR, Berkay Hakkı KANTAR, Bahar GEDİK, Ziya DUMLUPINAR Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Silage Quality of Mixtures of Berseem Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) and Annual Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under Bilecik Conditions <p>This study was conducted in 2022 with the aim of determining the appropriate mixture ratio of berseem clover (<em>Trifolium resupinatum</em> L.) and annual ryegrass (<em>Lolium multiflorum</em> Lam.) in Bilecik conditions. The study was arranged according to a randomized complete block design with three replications. After the plants harvested in the experiment were chopped in size of 2 cm in size, they were filled into vacuum bags to make silage, taking into account the mixing ratios. The prepared silages were stored at 25±2 °C. In the research, six treatments were tested, including 100% berseem clover, 80% berseem clover + 20% annual ryegrass, 60% berseem clover + 40% annual ryegrass, 40% berseem clover + 60% annual ryegrass, 20% berseem clover + 80% annual ryegrass, and 100% annual ryegrass. According to the study, silage yield ranged from 1514 to 2033 kg da<sup>-1</sup>, protein yield ranged from 241.7 to 358.5 kg da<sup>-1</sup>, relative feed value ranged from 96.91 to 146.87, dry matter content ranged from 31.4 to 36.5%, Flieg score ranged from 83.89 to 93.32, pH values ranged from 4.31 to 4.66. As a result of the study, considering all the characteristics, it was determined that mixing 40% annual ryegrass with berseem clover instead of pure silage gave better results in terms of silage efficiency and quality.</p> Ensar ER, Hanife MUT Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Silage Quality of Alfalfa and Annual Ryegrass Mixture <p>Animal feed often includes cereal straw and forage crops. Silage is a traditional process practiced ensiliation of seasonally harvested forage or some crops, ensuring a constant supply of feed for animals. In this study, which was carried out to determine the quality of silages made of alfalfa and annual ryegrass in plain and different mixture ratios in Bilecik conditions. This study was carried out to determine the silage quality of alfalfa and Italian ryegrass mixtures (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100). The harvested plants were cut into 2 cm size after wilting a little and filled into 2 kg vacuum silage packages considering the mixing ratios. The silage samples, whose air was removed by vacuum packaging machine and their mouths were closed, were stored at 25±2 <sup>o</sup>C for 45 days. In treatments were determined physical observations, dry matter rate, pH, crude protein rate, acid detergent fiber rate, neutral detergent fiber rate, relative feed value, acetic acid, lactic acid and some mineral contents. As a result, it was determined that annual ryegrass added to alfalfa at different rates positively affected silage quality. Considering all the examined characters, it was found that adding 40 – 80 % annual ryegrass to the alfalfa silage as better results in terms of silage quality.</p> Abdurrahman Alper DÜNDAR, Hanife MUT Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Resistance of Some Plantal Traits of Local Karacadağ Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Populations to Chemical Mutagen Treatment <p>This study was carried out in the summer growing season of 2022 to investigate the resistance of sodium azide (NaN3) (1 mM) application to herbicide application in M2 generation of four different Karacadağ paddy populations (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.). In the study, M2 plants were treated with imidazolinone (IMI) herbicide at 3-4 leaf stage. The field trials were carried out acccording to randomized complete blocks design with three replications. As a result of the research, six plants each from Alatosun and Cobi populations and three plants each from Sarıcanak and Subatan populations showing resistance to herbicide application were obtained. In the study, plant height, number of grains in panicle, stem diameter, panicle length and tillering number of the populations gave higher values in the control groups without herbicide application compared to the plots with herbicide application, and it was revealed that the populations were affected by mutagen application to different degrees. The grain weight was not affected by herbicide application and no statistically significant difference was observed between the control group and herbicide treated populations. When the herbicide treated populations were compared with their control groups, Alatosun, Sarıcanak and Subatan populations showed no significant difference in terms of grain weight, while the control group of Cobi population was higher than the herbicide treated plots.</p> Muhammed İsmail AKYILDIZ, Aydın ALP Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle (FeO-NP) Application on the Growth of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Grown in Soilless Culture <p>In order to increase the Fe content of plants grown on iron-deficient soils and to reduce the health problems associated with Fe deficiency in humans and animals, there is a need for effective, cheap and environmentally friendly fertilizer production and fertilizer applications. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO-NPs) synthesized by green synthesis method were characterized and applied in increasing doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) to Hoagland nutrient solution in which beans (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.) were grown. The experiment was carried out in three replicates for 30 days in a climate chamber with controlled conditions (16/8 hours’ light/dark, 25/20 °C temperature and 60 % humidity, 10 Klux light intensity). Throughout the experiment, we observed morphological changes in bean plants grown in perlite culture, measured chlorophyll content in leaves before harvest, and determined dry weight of shoots and roots and concentrations of Fe, N, P, K, Ca, Cu, Mn, and Zn in shoots parts. The application of FeO-NP has exhibited a significant impact on the concentration of Fe in both the shoots and roots according to the results obtained (5 % and 1 %, respectively). The highest Fe concentration (92.11 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) in the shoots was determined from the 10 mg L<sup>-1</sup> application dose. With FeO- NP application, the dry weight of shoots as well as the concentrations of N, Mg, and Cu decreased in comparison to the control, while the concentrations of P, K, Ca, Zn, and Mn varied depending on the dosage of the application. Except for nitrogen, the study established that the macro and micronutrient concentrations in plant tissues were sufficient.</p> Melek BİÇER BAYRAK, Hatice DAĞHAN Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Roughage Quality of Gelemen Clover (Trifolium meneghinianum Clem.) in Different Development Periods <p>This study was carried out to determine some quality characteristics of Gelemen clover <em>(Trifolium meneghinianum </em>Clem.) during budding, flowering and pod setting periods. In the study, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), condensed tannin (KT), total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), radical scavenging activity (DPPH) contents were determined. The highest CP was in the budding period (17.78%) and the lowest was in the seed setting period (12.29%). The average K, P, Ca and Mg contents of Gelemen clover were 1.75%, 0.38%, 1.18% and 0.28%, respectively. The highest CT was determined in the pod setting period with 1.93%, and the lowest was in the budding period with 1.06%. The average TP, TF, and DPPH contents of the plant during budding, flowering and pod setting periods were 19.08 mg GA g<sup>-1</sup>, 162.71 mg QE g<sup>-1</sup>, 162.71 mg QE g<sup>-1</sup>, and 67.72%, respectively. As a result, the budding and flowering period of showed superior performance compared to the pod setting period in terms of the quality traits. The secondary compounds determined in the plant were sufficient for animal health and nutrition. In addition, the traits identified in the plant will shed light on future studies.</p> Gülcan KAYMAK BAYRAM, Mehmet CAN, Zeki ACAR, İlknur AYAN, Erdem GÜLÜMSER Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Characterization of Surface and Groundwater Resources in Yüksekova Basin <p>Excessive discharge of nitrate and phosphate into water sources leads to eutrophication of surface waters such as rivers and lakes and posing a threat to human health and aquatic life. This study was conducted to determine the nutrient loads of groundwater and surface water resources in the Yüksekova basin, which has the most valuable agricultural lands for Hakkari province and Nehil Reed, where various ecosystem services are produced for the whole region, to identify the sources of pollution if threshold values are exceeded and to develop solutions. For this purpose, water samples were collected from 51 points including streams, creeks, artesian wells, natural fountains and boreholes in the study area located between latitudes 37°.26' N - 37°.36' N and longitudes 44°.4' D - 44°.26' D for 2 years (2020, 2021) in 2 different periods each year. The average NO3- content in the study area during the spring months of 2020 and 2021 was 3.45 and 3.74 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, and increased slightly in the fall to 4.73 and 4.44 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The highest PO4-3 content in the study area, where the use of mineral fertilizers in agricultural production is almost non-existent, were detected in Nehil stream (1.99 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), irrigation canal (0.78 mg kg-1), and airport drainage (0.56 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards, the NO3- and PO4-3 contents of surface and groundwater in the Yüksekova Basin are below harmful threshold levels. However, NO3- and PO4-3 input from livestock farms and domestic wastewater into water sources can pose significant future challenges to water quality.</p> Mesut BUDAK, Hikmet GÜNAL, Mesut SIRRI, Nurullah ACİR Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Effect of Sewage Sludge Used in the Cultivation of Corn Plants as Second Crop and Silage on the Macro Nutrient Elements in the Soil <p>This research was carried out to determine the effects of sewage sludge applied in increasing doses (2, 4, 8 tons da<sup>-1</sup>) on the physical and chemical properties of the soils of the Thrace Region, which has low organic matter content and where erosion problems are intense. The sewage sludge applied to the soil of the experiment field increased the organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium contents of the soil and this increase was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.01). Wastewater treatment sludge application caused a decrease in the exchangeable magnesium content of soils. There was no change in the exchangeable calcium content of the soil. According to the research results, the application of sewage sludge, which has a high organic matter content, complies with the Soil Pollution Control Regulation and has no harm in using it in agriculture, to the soils of the Thrace Region with insufficient organic matter content, is of great importance for increasing sustainability and productivity in agriculture.</p> Erhan GEZER, Fatih KONUKCU, Aydın ADİLOĞLU, Ali Rıza DİNÇER Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Effect of Male Effect on Some Reproductive Data in Kilis Goats During The Matching Season <p>Goat breeding is very important for both the livelihood and nutrition of our people, especially those living in mountainous regions. Goat breeding has advantages such as low breeding costs and low veterinary expenses compared to other animal species. The most important disadvantages are seasonal estrus and mating in flocks over a long period of time. In recent years, estrus synchronization and off-season estrus stimulation can be achieved successfully in all seasons of the year with various medical methods. However, increasing costs and labor requirements prevent the widespread use of these methods. The male effect is one of the non-medical methods that are inexpensive and require very little labor. In the presented study, 24 goats were divided into 2 groups and while no treatment was applied to the 1st Group (n:14), the goats of the 2nd Group (n: 10) were kept out of the herd 2-3 months before the breeding season and a male effect was created by joining the herd during the breeding season. Due to the male effect, the mating period was shortened by 46 days and the number of kids produced per parent goat increased by 56% (p&gt; 0.05). As a result of our study, it was concluded that the male effect is beneficial in concentrating the estrus in Kilis goats during the breeding season and that it is an economically beneficial method, although not statistically, in increasing the number of lambs.</p> <p> </p> Ferit ÖZMEN, Halit Deniz ŞİRELİ, Elif Merve ÇINAR, Murat TURAN, İlhan ALKAN Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Effect of Different Levels of Cluster Tipping On Quality Characteristics and Phenolic Composition in Crimson Seedless Grape Variety <p>In table grapes, berry size, homogeneous colour, and medium-dense cluster structure are desirable characteristics. However, the Crimson Seedless grape variety has late maturity small berry size, and poor colour. The study aimed to apply different levels of technical applications to the vines to achieve the desired quality of this table grape variety and it was used completely randomized block design with three replicates for each treatment, and six vines in each replication. Treatments were made as control (C), 1/5 (A1), 1/3 (A2), and 1/2 (A3) cluster tipping (CT). As a result, the grape variety was affected by both vintage averages effect of different rates of CT applied in both years on some quality characteristics and the phenolic composition of the Crimson Seedless grape variety was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). According to the findings, treatments A1 and A2 for CT were more efficient than the control in enhancing cluster features, berry diameter, and berry quality. Organic acids in both years, the highest values of tartaric acid and malic acid were found in the control and A1 treatments, while the lowest values were found in the A2 and A3 treatments. On the other hand, CT treatments increased as the average peonidin-3-glucoside by 48.58%, malvidin-3-glucoside by 20.54%, cyanidin-3-glucoside content by 15.98 %, delphinidin-3-glucoside by 7.85%, and petunidin-3-glucoside by 7.48 % in both years.</p> Harun ÇOBAN Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 In Vitro Propagation of Ornothogalum umbellatum <p>The objective of this study is to determine the propagation performance of <em>Ornithogalum umbellatum</em>, which is among the geophytes of our country, by tissue culture. The study was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory of the Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of the Ege University. Bulbs explants of <em>Ornithogalum umbellatum</em> were used as genetic material in the study. Bulb explants were cultured in different cytokinins for the rejeneration <em>in vitro</em> conditions. The media of different levels of MS+Z (Zeatin) (0.5; 1.0 ve 2.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), MS +TDZ (Thidazuron) (3.0 ve 4.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) ve MS+BAP (6-Benzilaminopurin) (4.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) were used for <em>in vitro</em> propagation. There was no difference in media of Z, TDZ and BAP for the number of shoots. The medium of 0.5 m L<sup>-1</sup> Z had the highest mean in terms of shoot length as 10.2 cm. For root number and root length were found to be successful in 0.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup> and 1.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> Z but root formation was not achieved in the other media. Developing shoots were sub cultured in different amounts of IBA for root formation. While there was no difference in the IBA media for root number, 0.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup> and 1.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> IBA had the highest mean in terms of root length. Bulbs explants of <em>Ornithogalum umbellatum</em> were found to be suitable for propagation under <em>in vitro</em>. Therefore, it can be used in a rapid and disease-free plantlet by <em>in vitro</em> culture and can be evaluated in various area, just as commercial production.</p> <p> </p> Gülsüm ÖZTÜRK Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Different Irrigation Methods on Oil Content and Fatty Acids Formation in Some Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Varieties <p>This study was conducted during the 2022 cotton growing season in the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture at Harran University, using the randomized split-plot design with Fiona and May-455 cotton varieties. Irrigation methods were determined as furrow irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and drip irrigation. In the study, fat content (%) was determined from saturated and unsaturated fatty acids such as myristic acid (c14:0), palmitic acid (c16:0), stearic acid (c18:0), oleic acid (c18:1), linoleic acid (c18:2) and nervonic acid (c24:1) ratios were determined as (%). As a result of the study, it was observed that furrow irrigation increased the oil content compared to drip and sprinkler irrigation. Among the varieties, May-455 was found to have a higher oil content compared to the Fiona variety. Palmitic acid (c16:0) has a significant effect in terms of irrigation methods and cotton varieties, and oil ratio (%) has a significant effect only in terms of cotton varieties. However, there was no significant effect on myristic acid (c14:0), stearic acid (c18:0), cis-oleic acid (c18:1n9c), cis-linoleic acid (c18:2n6c), and nervonic acid (c24:1). It is believed that the composition of oil fatty acids in oil crops is influenced not only by ecological and various other factors but also by genotype.</p> Suat CUN, Vedat BEYYAVAŞ, Emrah RAMAZANOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hard Outer Shell Biochar Applied on Loamy Textured Soils on Nitrate (NO3-) and Ammonium (NH4+) Leaching <p>In this study, the effects of pistachio (<em>Pistacia vera</em> L.) hard shell biochar (FDB) applied at different doses (0% (control), 1.5% and 3%) in loamy soil on (Nitrate) NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> and (Ammonium) NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> leaching were investigated. In this trial design, ammonium nitrate (NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub>) (16 kg N da<sup>-1 </sup>column<sup>-1</sup>) was used as ammonium and nitrate source in the planned column experiment with 3 repetitions; increasing doses of FDB (0%-control; 1.5% and 3.0%) were administered. The total flushing took 6 weeks, 750 ml of water column<sup>-1</sup> was given weekly; The NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> and NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> accumulations in the filters were determined by collecting them weekly. After the washing was disrupted, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> and NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> analyzes were performed on the soil samples in the columns. The findings obtained showed that NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> concentrations in the filters decreased with increasing FDB application doses. This decrease was found to be 51.45% and 16.21% for 1.5% and 3% doses, respectively. NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> retention of column soils after washing was calculated as 87.5% at 1.5% dose and 93.75% at 3% dose. When the effect of increasing doses of FDB applications on NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> concentrations in the filters was examined; NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> concentrations decreased by 90.10% and 32.23% at 1.5% and 3.0% doses, respectively. NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> retention in column soils after washing increased by 87.5% at 1.5% dose and 106.67% at 3.0% dose. As a result, pistachio hard shell biochar significantly reduced the NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> and NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> concentrations in the leachates at both doses (1.5% and 3.0%), and also significantly reduced the loss rates through leaching.</p> Salih AYDEMİR, Zemzem FIRAT Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Soil Factors Affecting the Distribution of Weed Flora in the Wheat Fields of Yüksekova Basin <p>Weeds significantly reduce the productivity and quality of wheat crop; therefore, exert negative impacts on wheat farming. Limited knowledge of weed distribution and the factors influencing their distribution is a major obstacle in weed control. This study investigated the taxonomy and distribution of weed species in the wheat fields of Yüksekova Basin and their relationship with soil properties. The prevalence and density of weed species in 80 wheat fields were recorded during 2020 and 2021. Soil samples were collected from each field at a depth of 0-20 cm for physicochemical soil analyses. A total of 87 weed taxa belonging to 18 families were identified, comprising 2 non-seed-producing, 18 monocotyledonous, and 67 dicotyledonous species. Additionally, the prevalence of cosmopolitan weeds adapted to different ecosystems was recorded from the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was conducted to demonstrate the impact of soil properties on the distribution of weeds. The findings indicated that soil texture, organic matter, soil reaction (pH) and nutrients content significantly influenced the distribution of weeds. The high spatial variation in soil properties led to significant spatial variation in the distributions of weed taxa. Considering this spatial variation is crucial for successful weed control, offering substantial savings in cost, labor, and time.</p> Mesut SIRRI, Mehmet FİDAN, Mesut BUDAK Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Some Forage Quality Traits in Aegilops Species Found in the Southeastern Anatolia Region <p>This study was carried out to determine the quality traits of forages of belonging to <em>Aegilops neglecta</em>, <em>Aegilops triuncialis </em>and <em>Aegilops umbellate</em> species found in the natural flora in different locations of the Southeastern Anatolia Region, Türkiye. For forage chemical analysis; forage samples of the <em>Aegilops </em>species were taken with three replications during the flowering period of the species in the spring of 2023. Variance analysis results of the study data showed that there were statistically significant differences among the <em>Aegilops</em> species in the locations in terms of all examined traits, and it was determined that the examined traits varied within the following ranges; crude protein (CP) 8.64-18.18%, dry matter ratio (DM) 91.55-93.93%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) 29.63-39.40%, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 44.79-68.76%, acid detergent insoluble protein (ADP) 0.23-0.65%, digestible dry matter (DDM) 58.21-65.82%, dry matter intake (DMI) 1.75-2.97%, Relative feed values (RFV) 80.50-154.73, potassium ratio (K) 1.27-2.94%, calcium ratio (Ca) 0.26-1.15%, magnesium ratio (Mg) 0.13-0.27%, phosphorus ratio (P) 0.26-0.42%, Ca/P 0.85-3.05 and K/(Ca+Mg) 1.55-6.79. Considering the research results; it was concluded that the forages of the<em> Aegilops</em> species generally had sufficient mineral contents (K, Ca, Mg and P) to meet the requirements of livestock. Additionally, it was determined that the <em>Aegilops neglecta</em> species located in Diyarbakır-13 (4) location had better quality forage than the other <em>Aegilops</em> species in the other locations of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.</p> Mehmet BAŞBAĞ, Mehmet Salih SAYAR Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Investigation of the Effect of Alfalfa Flour Added to Fish Feed on the Nutritional Value of Fish Feed <p>Study was conducted to determine the effect of alfalfa flour added to fish feed on the nutritional value of fish feed. In the study, pure of alfalfa flour and fish feed and their mixtures in certain ratios were used. It was determined that the effects of alfalfa flour and fish feed pure and mixtures on dry matter, crude protein, ADF, NDF, digestible dry matter, digestible energy, metabolic energy, dry matter intake, relative feed value, phosphorus, potassium and calcium ratios were statistically significant (P≤0.01), while the effects on magnesium values were insignificant. The highest dry matter and crude protein ratios were obtained from pure fish feed. The lowest ADF and NDF ratios and the highest digestible dry matter, digestible energy, digestible energy, metabolic energy, dry matter intake and relative feed value were obtained from the mixtures in which 5%, 10% and 15% alfalfa flour was added fish feed and with pure fish feed. Therefore, it was concluded that it may be advantageous to add alfalfa flour at a rate ranging from 5-15% to fish feed. In addition, it was determined that the addition of alfalfa flour to fish feed enriched the potassium and calcium content of fish feed.</p> Mehmet BAŞBAĞ, Erdal ÇAÇAN, Halit Deniz ŞİRELİ Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Morphological, Physical and Chemical Characteristics, Classification and Evaluation of Soils Formed on Common Parent Materials in Şanlıurfa for Forensic Applications <p>Soils are one of the important evidences used in forensic applications. However, since the soil is a very variable and dynamic asset, there are some limitations in its use as evidence. In this work, the morphological, physical and chemical properties of the soils formed on the materials commonly found in the province of Şanlıurfa were examined and classified, and their usability for forensic use was evaluated. For this purpose, three soil profiles were defined from the soils formed on four common main materials, soil samples were analyzed and classified according to the horizon. According to the results of the research, soil color, clay accumulation, lime gypsum accumulation, sand, silt, clay rates, classes and sudden texture change, organic matter distribution have been observed. Soil profiles are classified in two ordoes: Inceptisol and Vertisol. Soils with significant soil variations on different main materials; the fact that soil taxonomy does not have sufficient discrimination power that forensic science needs. Therefore, for forensic</p> Yüsra İNCİ, Recep GÜNDOĞAN, Ali Volkan BİLGİLİ, Emrah RAMAZANOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Biochar Application as a Carbon Substrate on Cotton Plant Growth and Some Soil Enzymes <p>Biochar is a soil amendment that can influence many biotic processes in the soil. When applied to soil with low organic matter content, it improves the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil, thereby enhancing soil quality. This study was conducted to examine the potential effects of different ratios of biochar applied to a calcareous soil on the growth of cotton plants and soil biology. The study comprised four treatments: a control group without biochar application and three different levels of biochar application (3%, 6%, 9%). As a result, biochar application increased the uptake of nitrogen, potassium, iron, and boron in cotton plants. It significantly increased the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SPAD values used to assess the plant's nitrogen status. By triggering an increase in the activity of nitrate reductase enzymes in the plant leaves, biochar application notably hindered nitrate accumulation, particularly in the case of the 6% biochar application. Additionally, biochar significantly increased the soil enzymes dehydrogenase and urease, contributing positively to the C and N cycles in the soil. The study results demonstrate that biochar application can enhance the uptake of plant nutrient elements from the soil and increase soil enzyme activity in cotton plants.</p> Emrah RAMAZANOGLU Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Taxonomic Classification of Şanlıurfa Halfeti Soils and Their Matching with the FAO/UNESCO (WRB) System <p>The aim of this research is to evaluate the soils of the Halfeti region in terms of morphological characteristics, determine the features of different soil individuals, interpret the relationships between formation conditions and soil properties, and use WRB (World Reference Base for Soil Resources) and Soil Taxonomy during soil classification. The focus of the study is the Halfeti District, located 122 km west of the southeast of Şanlıurfa Province. The research area is situated between elevations of 600-670 m. In the study conducted on three soil profiles opened in neighboring areas showing significant differences, 17 disturbed soil samples were taken based on horizons, and analyses of organic matter, pH, lime, cation exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity were performed. According to soil taxonomy, the soil profiles were classified as Seldek profile in the Calsixerert great group, Karaotlak profile in the Xerochrepts great group, and Argıl profile in the Xeroorthents great group. The same profiles were classified according to the FAO/UNESCO (WRB) classification system as Seldek profile in the Chromic Vertisol group, Karaotlak profile in the Vertic Cambisol group, and Argıl profile in the Lithic Leptosol group.</p> Salih AYDEMİR, Hasine KÜÇÜKYILDIRIM Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300