ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p><strong><em>ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em></strong> is a four issues per year (March, June, September, and December) and was first published in the spring of 2017. The journal was established in order to have an original, unpublished, and not taken elsewhere for publication in the realm of business science in all fields of agriculture and agricultural sciences from Turkey and all over the world. It is maintained as the length of the history of the first history.</p> <p><em><strong>The manuscripts</strong></em> will be sent to two referees according to the content and the areas of expertise of the referees. In our journal, the double-blind peer-review process is applied in the article evaluations. Both the reviewer and author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process. The journal publishes original research articles generated from studies conducted in all agricultural areas especially in Horticulture, Field Crops, Plant Protection, Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Machinery, Agrology and Plant Nutrition, Agricultural Biotechnology The Food Engineer and Animal Science.</p> <p><strong><em>ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em></strong> accepts research articles online with the Open Journal System (OJS) and offers it to the stakeholders with unlimited accessibility of the articles in all issues. As it is known, Open Journal Systems increase the impact level of articles by providing more qualified viewing opportunities to all readers on a national and international scale compared to subscription and distribution systems. OJS systems are also easily available to researchers in terms of indexing, re-access, free access, duplication.</p> <p>Every article published in the journal since 2020 has given a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number.Since it is obligatory to provide ORCID numbers on articles accepted for publication, the "<a href="">Title Page</a>" must be filled completely in this sense in the article submission (upload) process.</p> en-US (Dr. Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU) (Dr. Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU) Fri, 07 Jun 2024 08:54:21 +0300 OJS 60 Maintaining the Quality and Storage Life of Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) with Melatonin and Methyl Jasmonate <p>In this study, the effects of post-harvest applications of melatonin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the quality parameters of Albion strawberries during the storage process were examined. The results showed a continuous increase in pH values during storage; The highest value was recorded in the 1 µmol L<sup>-1</sup> MeJA group and the lowest value was observed in the 0.5 mMol L<sup>-1</sup> Melatonin group. TSS content decreased in all treatments during storage due to increased respiration. Similarly, titratable acidity initially increased but decreased at the end of storage. In particular, it has been observed that administration of 0.5 mMol L<sup>-1</sup> melatonin slows down the decrease in titratable acidity. There were fluctuations in color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h°) during storage, and both melatonin and MeJA applications were effective in maintaining the L* value. MeJA application showed superior results in preserving overall color values. Respiratory rate increased initially and decreased after storage day 12; both melatonin and MeJA administrations contributed to the reduction in respiratory rate. The tanning index fluctuated across all treatments; Melatonin-treated groups showed the highest index at the end of storage. MeJA applications were more effective in protecting pH, TSS, L* value and color tone value. In conclusion, it can be said that post-harvest treatments of melatonin and MeJA have significant effects on quality parameters during the storage process of Albion strawberries and contribute to the understanding of post-harvest management strategies to increase the shelf life and quality of strawberry fruits</p> Sercan DÜZGÜN , Şeyda ÇAVUŞOĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Supplementing Broiler Quail Diets with Dried Egg Yolk under Heat Stress Conditions <p>This study was conducted to investigate the impact of incorporating dried egg yolk into the diet on the growth performance, carcass quality characteristics, and thigh-breast malondialdehyde value of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) subjected to heat stress. A total of 160 quails, 10 days old, were divided into four groups, each comprising 10 replicates with four chicks in each group. Throughout the experiment, the quails were provided with isonitrogenic and isocaloric feeds. The experimental groups were as follows: 1) Basic ration without temperature application (Control); 2) Basic ration with 1% added egg yolk, without temperature application; 3) Basic ration with temperature treatment (30 °C for 8 hours per day); and 4) Basic ration with 1% added egg yolk, along with temperature treatment (30 °C for 8 hours per day). At the end of the experiment, the highest body weight gain occurred in male and female quails which fed the diets incorporated with dried egg yolk and not exposed to heat (P&lt;0.05). The males and females that were exposed to heat and fed with the basic ration showed the lowest feed intake, and this difference was statistically significant (P&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference observed in the malondialdehyde (MDA) values of thigh meat on days 3 and 9, as well as in breast meat on days 3, 6, and 9 (P&gt;0.05). However, a significant change in thigh malondialdehyde value was detected on day 6 (P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, the addition of dried egg yolk to the diets of quails exposed to heat stress diminished the negative effects of heat stress on growth performance.</p> <p> </p> Mehmet IRMAK, Muzaffer DENLİ, Veysi KAYRİ, Hasan Hüseyin İPÇAK, Ferhat Mazlum ODUNCU, Ezgi ALDEMİR Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of the Prevalence and Economic Importance of Bee Parasitic Diseases in Devrekani District of Kastamonu Province <p>Beekeeping activities, widely carried out around the world, hold significant importance in our country due to its rich vegetation and climate characteristics. There are parasitic, bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases that are crucial in beekeeping. Parasitic infestations such as Nosemosis, Varroasis, Aethina tumida, Tropiaelaps spp., and Acarapis woodi are notable among bee parasites. However, when reviewing the literature, it was noted that there are insufficient studies on bee parasitic diseases. Furthermore, there are no studies on bee parasitic diseases in the Devrekani district. The primary source of income for the people living in the Devrekâni district, where the study took place, is animal husbandry and agriculture. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and seasonal distribution of bee parasitic diseases in the Devrekani district, to provide information to beekeepers about bee farming, to identify ways to protect against diseases observed in bees, to minimize veterinary health costs with the precautions to be taken, and to prevent the spread of bee parasitic diseases seen in the district to neighboring provinces through migratory beekeeping. Additionally, the aim is to determine the economic loss due to the decrease in honey sales resulting from hive deaths due to parasitic diseases and the cost of establishing new hives. The research material consisted of samples suspected of parasitic diseases taken from 21 different beekeeping enterprises registered with the Devrekani District Directorate of Agriculture between May 2023 and January 2024. Samples were collected from the hives and placed in sterile sample bags. Diagnosis of samples suspected of parasitic diseases was conducted in the parasitology laboratory using a Nikon brand SMZ 745T model stereo microscope and NIS Elements-D software imaging program. As a result of the diagnosis, no bee parasitic diseases were found. The absence of bee parasitic diseases indicates the possibility of bee deaths due to bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases, and suggests that multidisciplinary studies can be conducted on this issue.</p> <p> </p> Burak ŞAHİN, Burak ÖMEROĞLU, Melek KORKMAZ, Hümeyra ÖZGEN, Tuğba Nur EREN Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination the Effects of Different Concentrations of Salt (NaCl) Added to the Nutrient Medium under in vitro Conditions on the Development of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) <p>In this study, the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) added to the nutrient medium under <em>in vitro</em> conditions on tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> L.) development were determined. Murashige and Skoog (MS) was used as the basic nutrient medium. During the study; germination rate (%), average germination time (days), salt tolerance index (%), actual water content (%), stem fresh weight (g), stem dry weight (g), root fresh weight (g), root dry weight (g), stem length (mm), root length (mm) and visual scale evaluation parameters of tomato plants were examined. Among the nutrient media, the germination rate was found as the highest in DA (0 mM NaCl) (80.00%), DB (50 mM NaCl) (76.00%) and DC (100 mM NaCl) (75.60%) media. The shortest average germination time was determined in DA medium (3.19 days). The lowest salt tolerance index was obtained from DE (200 mM NaCl) (81.25%) medium. Considering the study results, it was determined that plant development slowed down as the NaCl dose increased.</p> Ecem KARA, Hatıra TAŞKIN, Gökhan BAKTEMUR Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Impact of Salicylic Acid Foliar Application on Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Physiological Responses of Pepper Plants under Deficit Irrigation <p>This study examines the impact of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at various concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, and physiological responses of pepper plants (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> L.) subjected to different levels of deficit irrigation. Pepper plants were exposed to three irrigation regimes (full irrigation, 75% field capacity, and 50% field capacity) and four SA concentrations (0 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.50 mM, and 1.0 mM). Decreasing irrigation levels led to significant reductions in fresh shoot weight, dry shoot weight, root dry weight, and plant height, with reductions of up to 66% observed under severe drought conditions. However, foliar application of SA mitigated these reductions, with an 18% increase in fresh shoot weight and up to 50% increase in root dry weight observed at the highest SA concentration (1.0 mM). Analysis of nutrient contents in fresh shoots revealed higher concentrations of several macro and micronutrients under reduced irrigation levels, attributed to the dilution effect. SA application positively correlated with increased uptake of essential nutrients, particularly potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents remained unaffected by SA application or irrigation levels. Relative water content varied across SA treatments and irrigation levels, indicating potential alterations in water status. Electrical conductivity measurements showed variability among treatments, suggesting changes in membrane permeability. Overall, our findings underscore the potential of SA foliar application to mitigate the adverse effects of deficit irrigation on pepper plant growth and nutrient uptake, offering insights for enhancing plant productivity and resilience to drought stress in arid and semi-arid regions.</p> Kemal Yalçın GÜLÜT, Gamze TAZE Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Characterization of Bacteria Causing Conjunctivitis Cases in Cats and Dogs: 25 Cases <p>In this study, determination of presence of some bacteria causing conjunctivitis cases in cats and dogs and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were aimed. For this purpose, the isolates obtained from ocular swab samples of cats and dogs diagnosed with conjunctivitis clinically, were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents of identified bacteria was determined by disk diffusion method. It was observed that the isolation rate of Gram positive bacteria from ocular swab samples was higher than Gram negative ones. It was determined that the mostly isolated bacteria species from the samples was <em>Staphylococcus pseudintermedius</em>. <em> Staphylococcus felis</em> and <em>Streptococcus canis</em> that have zoonotic potential were isolated from 4 cases, separately. Generally, antimicrobial resistant rate was found to be low in isolated bacteria in the research. On the other hand, it was determined that imipenem and ampicillin resistance in <em>Enterococcus</em> spp. and extended spectrum beta lactam resistance in <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> were high. In this study, it was concluded that <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp. were among the primer agents of conjunctivitis cases in cats and dogs. With the data obtained from the study, it was concluded that treatment with gentamicin, cephalosporin, enrofloxacin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol could be effective in cases of conjunctivitis caused by Gram positive bacteria while gentamicin, enrofloxacin, piperacillin+tazobactam, imipenem and erythromycin treatment could be effective in cases caused by Gram negative bacteria.</p> Ali GÜLAYDIN, Özgül GÜLAYDIN, Mustafa Barış AKGÜL Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Effect of Storage Containers and Storage Periods on the Moisture Content, Germination and Biotic Status of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) Seed <p>To observe the moisture content and germination capacity of durum wheat seed stored in different storage containers for certain storage periods, a Lab. experiment was carried out at the Agronomy laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, Bangladesh during March-May 2016. The experiment was designed completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications under three storage periods (30, 45, and 60 days after storage) and three seed containers (sealed plastic container, polythene bag and gunny bag). Initial seed moisture content (MC) and germination percentage (GP) was measured before storage of seeds. Seeds stored in containers gradually absorb moisture from air with the advancement of storage periods, and air leaked storage container i.e., gunny bag quickly absorb moisture than other two containers. The maximum values of GP were recorded of durum wheat seed with 30 days after storage (DAS) and the GP reduced significantly with increasing storage periods from 30 to 45 DAS. The highest GP (78.00 %) was found at 30 DAS in sealed plastic container while the lowest (57.67 %) at 60 DAS in gunny bag. The rate of reduction was found to increase with the advancement of storage periods. Durum wheat seed kept in sealed plastic container and ply bag maintained the minimum MC and eventually showed highest GP. An outstanding performance of GP was observed in sealed plastic container seed while the gunny bag provided the inferior GP among all of the three containers. Several fungi was observed such as <em>Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Penicillium</em> and <em>Rhizopus</em> during germination study, although no insect was found to any storage container during the storage periods. Higher number of fungus was observed in seeds of gunny bag than sealed plastic container and poly bag<strong>.</strong> In conclusion, durum wheat seeds should be stored in air tight container for certain periods.</p> Mohammad Sohidul ISLAM, A.S.M. Golam HAFEEZ, Md. Kaium CHOWDHURY, Moaz Hosen PRAMANIK, A.K.M. Abdul BARI, Khandakar AURIB, Fatih ÇIĞ, Sipan SOYSAL Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Effect of Different Organomineral and Inorganic Composite Fertilizers on Yield and Some Yield Components with Quality Parameters in Black Cumin <p>This study was carried out Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Field Crops Department in the experimental area during the 2021-22 vegetation period. In this study, it was aimed to determine the yield and yield components, oil ratio and oil composition of the black cumin plant of organomineral and compound fertilizers. Cameli black cumin seeds were used as research material. Control, 4:11, 11:21:5, 18:46:0, 20:20:0 and 15:15:15 fertilizers were applied in the experiment. Emergence time (days), flowering time (days), growing time (days), plant height (cm), total number of branches (pieces plant<sup>-1</sup>), total number of capsules (pieces plant<sup>-1</sup>), thousand grain weight (g), seeds yield (kg da<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (kg da<sup>-1</sup>), harvest index (%), oil yield (kg da<sup>-1</sup>), oil ratio (%) and oil components (%) were investigated. According to the results obtained, it was determined that the emergence period of the seeds varied between 15-18 days and the vegetation period between 118-129 days. In terms of applied fertilizers, it was determined that the plant height varied between 63.0-72.3 cm and the total number of capsules varied between 6.0-8.8 pieces plant<sup>-1</sup>. In terms of seed yield, the highest 85.48 kg da<sup>-1 </sup>was found in 20:20:0 inorganic compound fertilizer. Among the organomineral fertilizers, 4:11 fertilizer reached a higher yield value than 11:21:5 fertilizer. The oil yield varied between 20.9-26.0 kg da<sup>-1</sup>. In terms of organomineral and compound fertilizers, the highest oil ratio was determined from 20:20:0 with 32.1% and 11:21:5 with 31.2%. In terms of applied organomineral and inorganic composite fertilizers, linoleic acid was the most followed by oleic and palmitic acids, respectively, in fatty acid composition, and their proportional distribution was determined as 22.79%-23.93%, 52.77-54.69%, 12.56-13.41%.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p> </p> Sıdıka EKREN, Ali KOÇ Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Volatile organic compounds in different parts of Hibiscus syriacus L. by SPME/GC-MS method <p>Aromatic plants are plants with a wide range of traditional uses. One of the areas of medical use is their consumption for nutritional purposes. Aromatic plants have been used for thousands of years for their preservative and medicinal properties and for enhancing the aroma and flavor of foods. Hibiscus species are among the aromatic plants widely used in Türkiye. Studies have shown that Hibiscus species have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifertility, antifungal, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and hypoglycaemic effects. The use of aromatic plants for therapeutic purposes for centuries has made their compounds the research subject. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME) to determine volatile organic compounds. Twenty-nine volatile organic compounds were determined from different parts of <em>H. syriacus</em> L. species. The compounds with the highest content are carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, and linalool. The compounds with the highest ratios determined in the flower, seeds, leaves, and buds of Hibiscus syriacus L. were carvacrol (57.93 %), carvacrol (31.50 %), thymol (44.53 %) and carvacrol (54.54 %), respectively.</p> Mubin KOYUNCU , Musa KARADAĞ, Ayşe BARAN, Zübeyir GÜNEŞ Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Determination of Phytoextraction Capacity Using Lavender (Lavandula latifolia) Plant in Nickel-Contaminated Soils <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Lavender (<em>Lavandula latifolia</em>) plant for the remediation of soils contaminated with nickel (Ni). The Lavender plant has the potential to clean contaminated soils by absorbing pollutants through a method called phytoextraction. In the research, Ni-contaminated soils were prepared under controlled conditions, and Lavender plants were grown in these soils. The growth and development of the plants were monitored, and it was investigated whether the plants absorbed Ni from the soil and accumulated it on the plant. Increasing doses of Ni (0-200-400-600-800 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were applied in solution form, and pot soils were incubated for one week at 60-65% of field capacity. Then, seedlings in peat medium were transferred to pots and grown under controlled conditions for 6 weeks. It was determined that the plant age, fresh and dry weight, and height increased with 200 and 400 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup> applications compared to the control groups, while there was a decrease with 600 and 800 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup> applications. The lowest concentrations of Ni (mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) in plants and Ni content (µg plant<sup>-1</sup>) were observed in the control group (0 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup>), while the highest values were found in the 800 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup> application. It was found that the concentrations of 400 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup> (124 µg plant<sup>-1</sup>), 600 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup> (137 µg plant<sup>-1</sup>), and 800 mg Ni kg<sup>-1</sup> (150 µg plant<sup>-1</sup>) exceeded critical levels for plants, yet the plants remained alive at these concentrations. The phytoextraction ability of plants refers to their ability to absorb and retain harmful or polluting substances from the soil. Lavender may be among the plants that have phytoextraction potential for metals like Ni. However, the phytoextraction ability can vary depending on the species of the plant, growth conditions, and the pollutant applied. The research results demonstrated that the Lavender plant effectively absorbed Ni from the soil and accumulated it on the plant. This suggests that Lavender can be used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Ni.</p> Merve CAN, Abdullah EREN Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Nitrogen Source and Dose Effects on Spinach Yield and Total Nitrogen Content Across Storage Periods <p>Spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea</em> L.) cultivation is gaining prominence due to increasing interest in health and wellness. Nitrogen (N) is crucial for spinach growth, and traditional fertilization practices are being reconsidered for their environmental impact. In this study, we investigated the effects of different N sources, doses (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg N kg<sup>-1</sup>), and storage durations on dry weight and total N content of spinach plants. Four N sources, including ammonium sulfate (AS), calcium nitrate (CN), slow-release ammonium soil (SRAS). The spinach plants were subjected to storage for 0, 5, and 10 days, and their dry weight and total N content were measured. The results revealed significant variations in spinach dry weight and total N content among different nitrogen treatments and storage periods. Calcium nitrate consistently promoted higher dry weight and total N content, reaching 5.40% for total N at 400 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> on Day 0, compared to other N sources across various storage durations. The YR and SRAS also showed high total N levels, with values consistently above 4% at the highest dose. The SRAS exhibits potential for prolonged efficacy, particularly at higher doses and later storage stages. Initially, at Day 0, the total N content in SRAS treatment was highest and decreased significantly by Day 5, with a slight recovery by Day 10. The correlation between dry weight and total N content became more pronounced with longer storage periods and higher N doses and sources. Yeast residue exhibited the strongest positive correlation between dry weight and total N content, suggesting its effectiveness in promoting dry weight. In addition, a strong positive correlation between dry weight and total N content underscores the crucial role of N management in determining spinach yield and quality. The results showed that CN and SRAS, particularly at higher doses, were the most effective N sources for promoting dry weight in spinach. The findings underscore the importance of selecting the appropriate N source and dose is crucial for optimizing spinach yield and quality during storage.</p> Kemal Yalçın GÜLÜT, Gamze GÜLEÇ ŞENTÜRK Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Observation Barley Landraces (Hordeum vulgare L.) Interms of Morphological Traits <p>This research was conducted in 2020-21barley growing season under condition of Mardin and Diyarbakır. 78 barley landraces originated from Southeast Anatolia and 7 registarted barley varieties were evaluated according to Augmented Trail Design. Large variations were determined in barley landraces collections for examinated traits. Mean of observed traits of barley landraces and checks were ranged between 150 kg da<sup>-1</sup> and 134,62 kg da<sup>-1</sup> for grain yield in Diyarbakır location while 325 kg da<sup>-1</sup> and 460.7 kg/da in Mardin location. Grain yield, thousand kerned weight and plant height were higher in Mardin location compare to Diyarbakır because of supplemented irrigation. This study indicated that barley landraces has huge potential to increase variation for barley breeding programs and barley collection can be useful to developing desirable barley genotypes. We also recommend barley landraces should be preserved for sustainable agriculture activities for marginal areas and future breeding programs.</p> Doğan OKUR , Hüsnü AKTAŞ Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Organic Product Awareness and Healthy Life Preferences of Iğdır University Students: Investigation with Machine Learning and AHP Analysis <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the demographic structure, knowledge level about organic products and healthy lifestyle preferences of students of Iğdır University. In the study, a face-to-face survey was conducted on 300 students. RStudio program was used to analyze the data and machine learning method with XGBoost algorithm was preferred. The participants of the survey were 53.7% male and 46.3% female. Most of the participants are in the age group of 21-22 years (32.7%) and are students in formal education (85.3%). It was observed that the higher the number of siblings, the lower the level of education. There is a positive correlation between family income and educational level. The factors that most influence the knowledge of organic products are the number of siblings, fast food diet and family income. As family income increases, so does awareness of organic products. The majority of participants correctly define organic products. AHP analysis revealed that being physically healthy in the future is more important than being physically healthy now. The relationship between organic products and physical health stands out as an important result. The Friedman test confirms that the AHP analysis has produced a successful result with a high degree of accuracy.</p> Ayca Nur SAHIN DEMIREL, Sema TURK Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Choreutis nemorana (Hübner, 1799) (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae) Pest of Fig in Siirt Province <p>This study was carried out to determine the distribution, damage status and morphological characteristics of some biological periods of <em>Choreutis nemorana</em> (Hübner, 1799), a new pest of fig trees in Siirt province in 2019. The studies were carried out in 8 villages and a total of 20 orchards in the Central, Sirvan and Pervari districts of Siirt province. As a result of the study, <em>C. nemorana</em> was distributed in all districts, 16 of the 20 orchards observed were infected with the pest, and different biological stages of the pest were detected in 56% of the trees checked. The larvae feed on the upper and lower parenchyma cells of fig leaves. As a result of larval damage, curling, color change, feeding wounds and tears occur on the leaves. A cottony structure forms on the upper surface of the leaves and larval droppings are seen in this cottony structure. It is more common in July and August. Adults and larvae can be seen together at the beginning of August. When <em>Choreutis nemorana</em> is a newly widespread pest in fig areas, bio-ecological studies should be carried out to control this pest.</p> Cevdet KAPLAN, Halil DİLMEN Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of the Effect of Different Priming and Coating Applications on Germination and Early Seedling Development in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) <p>In recent years, seed pre-treatments and seed coating methods have been added to the studies on alfalfa (<em>Medicago sativa</em> L.) growing techniques. Plant growth regulator products are preferred in seed pre-applications. The products preferred as a preliminary application in the experiment were used for this purpose for the first time. The experiment was set up in the Laboratories of Sakarya University of Applied Sciences Faculty of Agriculture with 3 repetitions according to the randomized plots experiment pattern. In the study, different doses of Kerotin-L, Avesis Root, Momentum Plus and Panoramix products from commercially available commercial products were used as plant growth regulators during the priming stage. The pre-applied seeds were then coated using ash, clay, molasses and starch, and it was observed that these priming and coating processes gave positive results on germination and seedling development of alfalfa seeds. The highest germination rate among the examined features; germination power of Avesis Root in 300 doses, root fresh weight of Momentum in 100, 200, 400 and 500 doses and Keratin-L in 100 doses; Keratin-L at 300, 500 doses, root dry weight; Obtained from all doses of Keratin-L.In the light of the data obtained, it can be said that the priming and coating materials used are suitable priming material for alfalfa seed.</p> Mehmet ÖTEN, Beyzanur TUZLACI Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Micropropagation of Arugula Plant (Eruca sativa Mill.) <p>Tissue culture, an essential technique in modern plant biology, offers promising avenues for the mass production of elite plant varieties for desirable traits. This study compared the effects of 0.1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> NAA- 0.25 mg L<sup>-1</sup> BAP plant growth regulator combination using Cotyledon leaves (0.4 cm²) of three <em>Eruca</em> cultivars Estht 195, Estht 198, and Estht 201 of arugula (<em>Eruca sativa</em> Mill.) cultured for four and six weeks. Significant differences were noted among them for callus induction percentage, shoot induction percentage, and plant height (cm). Notably, var. Estht 201 indicated consistently improved performance, with a callus formation percentage of 61.83 % in 4 weeks and 74.05 % in 6 weeks. Similarly, Var. Estht 201 exhibited higher shoot induction (Week 4 67.45 %, Week 6:69.9 %), and plant height (Week 4:7.50 cm, Week 6:9.6 cm), throughout the experiment. These findings contributed to a deeper understanding of arugula micropropagation Dynamics. At the same time, this study has once again shown how important tissue culture micropropagation protocols are in terms of improving yield and quality as well as breeding studies.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Aisha ABDUL RAUF, AbdulRezzak MEMON, Mehmet Uğur YILDIRIM Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determining Optimal Measurement Time Points for SPAD and Canopy Temperature in Drought Tolerant Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Breeding <p>This study investigates optimal physiological parameter measurement times in <em>Gossypium hirsutum</em> L. to assess the effects of drought stress. Observations of SPAD (Leaf Chlorophyll Content) and canopy temperature depression (CMD) were made at different growth stages, including Early Growth, Flowering, Bolling, and Boll Opening stages. These measurements were linked to yield and fiber quality parameters across the cotton grown stages.Data was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to uncover complex trait variations and genetic diversity under water-limited conditions. Specifically, PCA revealed significant variations in key traits such as yield and fiber quality under water stress conditions.Canopy temperature measurements highlighted the reliability of assessments made during specific stages, particularly the Bolling stage, for evaluating trait relationships.Leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD) analysis emphasized the significant correlation of SPAD4 with fiber elongation (FE) and lint percentage (LP).Overall, the results demonstrate the critical importance of timely SPAD and CMD measurements, especially during the Bolling stage (SPAD3 and CHD3), for understanding cotton traits under drought stress.These findings underscore the importance of strategic physiological parameter assessments in cotton breeding under challenging environmental conditions.</p> Hatice Kübra GÖREN Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Palynological, Protein, and Phenolic Profiling of Bee Pollen from Mersin: An Investigation <p>Due to bee pollen's exceptional nutritional profile and unique phenolic composition, it has received significant attention recently. The aim of this study was to investigate the botanical origin, protein content, and phenolic composition of the eight bee pollen samples (BP01–BP08) from different districts of Mersin city, Türkiye. According to palynological analysis, pollen grains of 51 taxa belonging to 25 families were determined. BP01 and BP07 were bifloral, and the other samples were multifloral. Pollen belonging to the genera<em> Ceratonia </em>sp<em>., Helianthemum </em>sp<em>. </em>and <em>Olea </em>sp. were predominant in the samples<em>.</em> The protein content values ranged from 23.1±1.23–28.1±1.49 g/100g. The presence of 23 phenolic compounds was investigated in bee pollen samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and 12 of them were detected. Taxifolin, caffeic acid, quercetin, oleuropein, and kaempferol were determined to be the most abundant phenolic components, respectively. The bee pollen sample with the low protein content (BP03) had the highest phenolic composition. Furthermore, protein content and phenolic composition showed significant variability based on geographical origin.</p> Duygu Nur ÇOBANOĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Energy Use Efficency and Indicators of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Production <p>The aim of this study is to determine the energy use efficiency in dry bean production. Energy use efficiency calculations were made for the 2023 production season. The study was carried out in the Central district of Kırklareli province of Turkey. Within the scope of the study, total energy input was calculated as 16717.86 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup> and total energy output was calculated as 34440 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup>. Energy use efficiency in dry bean production was calculated as 2.06, specific energy as 9.71 MJ kg<sup>-1</sup>, energy efficiency as 0.10 kg MJ<sup>-1</sup> and net energy as 17722.14 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup>. Energy input types in dry bean production were examined. It was observed that it consists of 6633.38 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup> (39.68 %) direct energy, 10084.48 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup> (60.32 %) indirect energy, 2507.99 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup> (15 %) renewable energy and 14209.87 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup> (85 %) non-renewable energy. According to the 2023 production season study data, dried beans production can be said to be profitable in terms of energy use.</p> Cihan DEMİR Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin (hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT) Levels in Dogs with Hepatozoon Canis <p>The most common etiologic agent that causes canine hepatozoonosis is <em>Hepatozoon canis (H. canis).</em> High parasitemia is associated with symptoms of fever, anorexia, weight loss, anaemia, ocular discharge, and paralysis of the hind legs. The agent has also been reported to cause myocardial lesions. Troponins are considered the gold standard as they have high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial injury. The study consisted of a total of 27 dogs brought to Iğdır University Animal Hospital, 15 dogs diagnosed with <em>H. canis</em> infection by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and 12 healthy dogs. Of the examined dogs, 59.3% were female, and 40.7% were male. Of the dogs, 55.6% were 4 years old and under, and 44.4% were 5 years old and over. This study determined high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) levels in healthy dogs as 0.1262 and 0.1054 ng/mL, respectively. In dogs infected with <em>H. canis</em>, hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT levels were 0.4706 and 0.3056 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, there was a significant difference in serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin levels in dogs infected with <em>H.canis</em> compared to the control. There was no significant increase in cholesterol and calcium levels. In conclusion, there was a significantly higher increase in hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels in dogs infected with <em>H. canis</em>. Considering that even the slightest change in troponin levels is important for prognosis, <em>H. canis</em> may have caused myocardial injury in dogs in our study. Besides, the relative increase in hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI detected in the healthy animal group may indicate various possible causes, such as low clearance and distant myocardial ischaemic events.</p> Ümit YAŞAR, Cemalettin AYVAZOĞLU, Zehra Gül YASAR , Şemistan KIZILTEPE , Nilgün AYDIN Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Plants Used by the People in Gökçebağ (Siirt) and Its Surroundings for Nutrition, Industry, Agriculture and Livestock Purposes <p>The place selected as the study area is Gökçebağ town of Siirt center and the town is mostly engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. The town, which has a population of 2580 people, has emigrated a lot so far out of the city. Field studies were carried out in the study area between 2019 and 2020 and information on the plants used for different purposes (nutrition, industry, agriculture and livestock) was collected by establishing dialogues with the local people. In addition, a questionnaire study was conducted by interviewing the families of middle school students and asking them to fill out a questionnaire. As a result of dialogues and questionnaire surveys, a total of 86 plant taxa that are used by the people of the region for nutrition, industry, agriculture and animal husbandry purposes were identified. of these plants belonging to 32 families in total, the family with the highest number of taxa is the <em>Rosaceae</em> family with 14 taxa. A total of 96 different uses of these plants were obtained and it was determined that 78 of them were used for nutritional purposes and 18 of them were used for other purposes (industry, agriculture and animal husbandry). </p> Tuba Nur İNAL, Mehmet FİDAN Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Agro-morphological Characteristics of Turkey Origin Wild Chickpea (Cicer reticulatum L.) Genotypes <p>Chickpea (<em>Cicer </em><em>arietinum</em> L.) has an important place with its high protein content as food in Türkiye. This research was conducted in 2022 and 2023 growing seasons under Sivas ecological conditions using 10 standard varieties and 86 wild chickpea genotypes in an augmented experimental design. Differences among genotypes were found significant for all traits examined. The mean days to emergence (DE) was 21.7 days, days to flowering (DF) was 57.1 days, days to first pod setting (DFP) was 65.89 days, days to maturity (DM) was 101.64 days, plant height (PH) was 32.35 cm, first pod height (FPH) was 8.20 cm, number of pods per plant (NPP) was 102.02, number of grains per plant (NGP) was 97.94, grain weight per plant (GWP) was 13.30 g, hundred grain weight (100GW) was 14.72 g, biological yield (BY) was 622.1 kg da<sup>-1</sup>, grain yield (GY) was 132.96 kg da<sup>-1</sup> and harvest index (HI) was 20.55%. In the principal components biplot analysis, the first main component accounted for 48.6% of the variation, the second main component accounted for 24.4% of the variation and 73% of the total variation. In the biplot graph, DE, DF, DFP and DM were positively correlated with each other, PH, FPH, 100GW, BY, GY and HI were positively correlated with each other, NPP and NGP were positively correlated with each other. ILWC81 wild chickpea genotype stood out in terms of NPP, NGP, GWP, BY and GY, number of 73 wild chickpea genotype in terms of DF, 473 wild chickpea genotype in terms of DFP, and 53 wild chickpea genotype in terms of DM.</p> <p> </p> İlker YÜCE, Tolga KARAKÖY Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of the Effectiveness of Different Spraying Programs Against Powdery Mildew Disease (Erysiphe necator Schw.) in Vineyard <p>This study was carried out to determine the first spraying time and other spraying intervals in the chemical control against the disease and to establish a spraying program that will be effective in the control of the disease. The study was carried out in 2015 in a farmer's vineyard of 5 da of Razakı grape variety in Taşova district of Amasya province in a randomized block design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. In the study, treatments with different spraying times and intervals were applied for the control of the disease. At the end of the study, the effects of these treatments on the control of the disease were statistically evaluated and the most successful spraying program was determined. The same fungicide containing 100 g l<sup>-1</sup> Kresoxim-Methyl+200 g l<sup>-1</sup> Boscalid active ingredient was used in all treatments. According to the statistical analyses and evaluations, all treatments were found to be effective in the chemical control of powdery mildew on both leaves and clusters. However, due to reasons such as economic losses, environmental health and resistance problems in systemic drugs, it is thought that the application with the lowest number of sprayings and the highest effect of 91.96 % on panicle and 87.52 % on leaf should be considered.</p> Ümit ESER , Abdullah BALTACI Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Catastrophic Risks and Their Examination within the Scope of Agricultural Insurance in Turkey <p>In many countries of the world, the agricultural sector and all stakeholders operating in this sector face many risks. While the majority of these risks can be eliminated by various measures that can be taken, human beings are often helpless in the face of natural disasters such as earthquakes, droughts, floods and storms, known as Catastrophic Risks. Governments can prevent possible damages by taking various measures regarding the agricultural sector. The most important of these measures is Agricultural Insurance. Agricultural insurance is an effective mechanism in reducing the economic losses that farmers may encounter as a result of risks such as floods, drought, natural disasters, accidents and diseases. In this study, catastrophic risks and the damages that these risks may cause are examined in the context of agricultural insurance in Turkey. Qualitative method was used in the study. By making use of the studies in the relevant literature on the subject, documents and document reviews and evaluations were made by using secondary data about agriculture, agricultural sector, risk, catastrophic risks and insurance practices in the agricultural sector. According to the results of the study, agricultural insurance in Turkey is implemented by Tarsim, the necessary guarantees for insurable risks are provided as standard, wider guarantees on the basis of product and region are optionally possible thanks to additional contracts and additional premiums, while catastrophic risks are excluded from the scope. It was concluded.</p> Erdinç CESUR Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Coccoidea (Hemiptera) in Fruit Orchards of Şırnak Province Species and Distribution Areas <p>Due to the fact that the province of Şırnak is a region with favorable conditions for fruit growing, the value of fruit cultivation is increasing steadily every day. With the increase in fruiting, plant protection problems also arise, but there is no intensive chemical spraying. This study was considered for all these reasons and fruit production in Şırnak province and districts between 2021-2022 years species and distrubition areas in the areas of Coccoidea (Hemiptera). The study was carried out in a total of 60 orchards in 7 districts in fruit growing areas and laboratory studies. At the end of the work, total of 5 species were identified, including 3 species belonging to the Coccoidae family and 2 species belonging to the Diaspididae family. These are the species <em>Eulecanium sp.</em> (Linnaeus), <em>Parthenolecanium sp.</em> (Bouche), <em>Didesmococcus unifasciatus</em> (Archangelskaya), <em>Parlatoria oleae</em> (Colv.) and <em>Lepidosaphes ulmi</em> (Linnaeus). <em>Didesmococcus unifasciatus </em>has come to the fore as the most common species of species belonging to the Coccoidea parent family in all areas that are surveyed in view of the propagation areas. When we look at the basis of fruits, it was seen that the most widespread species with pests are almond and fig.</p> Tarkan AYAZ Copyright (c) 2024 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300