Characterization of Bacteria Causing Conjunctivitis Cases in Cats and Dogs: 25 Cases


Abstract views: 99 / PDF downloads: 15

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11154229

Keywords:

Cat, dog, conjunctivitis, Staphylococcus spp., antimicrobial resistance

Abstract

In this study, determination of presence of some bacteria causing conjunctivitis cases in cats and dogs and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were aimed. For this purpose, the isolates obtained from ocular swab samples of cats and dogs diagnosed with conjunctivitis clinically, were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents of identified bacteria was determined by disk diffusion method. It was observed that the isolation rate of Gram positive bacteria from ocular swab samples was higher than Gram negative ones. It was determined that the mostly isolated bacteria species from the samples was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.  Staphylococcus felis and Streptococcus canis that have zoonotic potential were isolated from 4 cases, separately. Generally, antimicrobial resistant rate was found to be low in isolated bacteria in the research. On the other hand, it was determined that imipenem and ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus spp. and extended spectrum beta lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae were high. In this study, it was concluded that Staphylococcus spp. were among the primer agents of conjunctivitis cases in cats and dogs. With the data obtained from the study, it was concluded that treatment with gentamicin, cephalosporin, enrofloxacin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol could be effective in cases of conjunctivitis caused by Gram positive bacteria while gentamicin, enrofloxacin, piperacillin+tazobactam, imipenem and erythromycin treatment could be effective in cases caused by Gram negative bacteria.

References

Bang, K., An, J.U., Kim, W., Dong, H.J., Kim, J., Cho, S., 2017. Antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from military working dogs in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Science, 18(2).

Ben Said, L., Dziri, R., Sassi, N., Lozano, C., Ben Slama, K., Ouzari, I., Torres, C., Klibi, N., 2017. Species distribution, antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in canine and feline enterococci in Tunisia. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 65(2): 173-184.

Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C., Turck, M., 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45: 493-494.

Cloet, A., da Silva, A.N., Facioli, F.L., Levitt, S., Sandmeyer, L.S., de Oliveira Costa, M., Leis, M.L, 2023. Streptococcus canis prevalence on the normal and abnormal ocular surface of dogs referred for ophthalmic disease in Canada. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 65(1): 16.

CLSI, 2018. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated From Animals. 4th Edition. CLSI, Pennsylvania.

EUCAST, 2019. Breakpoint Tables for Interpretation of MICs and Zone Diameters. 9th Edition. EUCAST, Switzerland.

Gelatt, K.N., 2012. Temel Veteriner Oftalmoloji. Avki Sırrı, Sancak İG (Çeviren). Medipres, Malatya.

Gülaydın, Ö., Ekin, İ.H., Ilhan, Z., Yesilyurt, M., 2022. Investigation of vancomycin resistance and some virulence factors in enterococci strains ısolated from dogs. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research, 5(2): 54-59.

Gülaydın, Ö., Gürtürk, K., Ekin, İ.H., Kaplan, B., 2021. Van ve yöresinde sığır sütlerinden izole edilen koagulaz negatif stafilokokların bazı antimikrobiyal maddelere karşı duyarlılığının belirlenmesi. Fırat Universitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Veteriner Dergisi, 35(3): 172-177.

Hamed, M.I., McCalla, T.L., Townsend, W.M., Seleem, M.N., 2017. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from two dog cases with ophthalmic lesions. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, 5: 132-136.

Ingrey, K.T., Ren, J., Prescott, J.F., 2003. A fluoroquinolone induces a novel mitogen-encoding bacteriophage in Streptococcus canis. Infection and Immunity, 71(6): 3028-3033.

İlhan, Z., Gençcelep, M., Aksakal, A., 2001. Van kedilerinde multifaktöriyel konjuktivitis. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(1): 53-58.

Kiełbowicz, Z., Płoneczka‐Janeczko, K., Bania, J., Bierowiec, K., Kiełbowicz, M., 2015. Characteristics of the bacterial flora in the conjunctival sac of cats from Poland. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 56(3): 203-206.

LoPinto, A.J., Mohammed, H.O., Ledbetter, E.C., 2015. Prevalence and risk factors for isolation of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus in dogs with keratitis. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 18(4): 297-303.

Lynch, S.A., Helbig, K.J., 2021. The complex diseases of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in canines: where to next?. Veterinary Sciences, 8(1): 11.

Magiorakos, A.P., Srinivasan, A., Carey, R.B., Carmeli, Y., Falagas, M.E., Giske, C.G., Harbarth, S., Hindler, J.F., Kahlmeter, G., Olsson-Liljequist, B., Paterson, D.L., Rice, L.B., Stelling, J., Struelens, M.J., Vatopoulos, A., Weber, J.T., Monnet, D.L., 2012. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 18(3): 268-281.

Mouney, M.C., Stiles, J., Townsend, W.M., Guptill, L., Weese, J.S., 2015. Prevalence of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus spp. in the conjunctival sac of healthy dogs. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 18(2): 123-126.

Płoneczka-Janeczko, K., Bania, J., Bierowiec, K., Kiełbowicz, M., Kiełbowicz, Z., 2017. Bacterial diversity in feline conjunctiva based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis: a pilot study. BioMed Research International.

Sips, G.J., van Dijk, M.A., van Westreenen, M., van der Graaf-van Bloois, L., Duim, B., Broens, E.M., 2023. Evidence of cat-to-human transmission of Staphylococcus felis. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 72(2): 001661.

Soimala, T., Lübke-Becker, A., Hanke, D., Eichhorn, I., Feßler, A.T., Schwarz, S., Eule, J.C., 2020. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from ocular surfaces of dogs and cats suffering from ophthalmological diseases. Veterinary Microbiology, 244: 108687.

Suter, A., Voelter, K., Hartnack, S., Spiess, B.M., Pot, S.A., 2018. Septic keratitis in dogs, cats, and horses in Switzerland: associated bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 21(1): 66-75.

Şababoğlu, E., Öztürk, D., Türütoğlu, H., 2021. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus canis from dogs. Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi, 32(1): 6-13.

Tamakan, H., Göçmen, H., 2019. Kedi ve köpeklerde metisilin dirençli Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) taşıyıcılığı. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 14(1): 98-106.

Troscianczyk, A., Nowakiewicz, A., Gnat, S., Łagowski, D., Osinska, M, 2021. Are dogs and cats a reservoir of resistant and virulent Enterococcus faecalis strains and a potential threat to public health? Applied Microbiology, 131: 2061-2071.

Uysul, A., Kurt, Ş., Soylu, S., Soylu, E. M., Kara, M., 2019. Identification of microorganism species in leafy vegetables using MALDI-TOF MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) technique. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 29(4): 595-601.

Van den Bunt, G., Top, J., Hordijk, J., de Greeff, S.C., Mughini-Gras, L., Corander, J., van Pelt, W., Bonten, M.J.M., Fluit, A.C., Willems, R.J.L., 2018. Intestinal carriage of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in humans, dogs and cats in the Netherlands. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 73: 607-614.

Varges, R., Penna, B., Martins, G., Martins, R., Lilenbaum, W., 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci isolated from naturally occurring canine external ocular diseases. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 12(4): 216-220.

Wang, L., Pan, Q., Zhang, L., Xue, Q., Cui, J., Qi, C., 2008. Investigation of bacterial microorganisms in the conjunctival sac of clinically normal dogs and dogs with ulcerative keratitis in Beijing, China. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 11(3): 145-149.

Williams, D., 2017. Bacterial isolates from canine external ocular disease and their antimicrobial sensitivities. ARC Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3(3): 29-36.

Yücetepe, A.G., Arserim, N.B., Özcan, N., Cenak, H., Keskin, O., 2021. Bir kedideki nekrotizan fasiit olgusundan izole edilen iki zoonotik bakteri: Streptococcus canis ve Staphylococcus felis. Veteriner Hekimler Derneği Dergisi, 92(2): 173-180.

Published

2024-06-07

How to Cite

GÜLAYDIN, A., GÜLAYDIN, Özgül, & AKGÜL, M. B. (2024). Characterization of Bacteria Causing Conjunctivitis Cases in Cats and Dogs: 25 Cases. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(2), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11154229

Issue

Section

Articles